Laparoscopy translated from Ancient Greek- lapara meaning ‘flank or side’, and skopeo meaning ‘to see’ is an operation performed in the abdomen or pelvis using small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) with the aid of a camera. The laparoscope aids diagnosis or therapeutic interventions with a few small cuts in the abdomen.
What is the difference between Laparoscopic & Open (or) traditional surgery?
The difference between the two procedures is how the way the abdomen is accessed. Open surgery requires a large single incision that cuts through the abdominal muscle and wall often meaning longer recovery times and a greater potential for pain, blood loss and infection. Minimally invasive surgery, on the other hand, uses several tiny incisions in the abdomen that allow specially made long-handled medical devices access to the surgical field. This often shortens recovery time significantly as well as leading to less pain and lessening the chance of infection.
How is laparoscopic surgery done?
During laparoscopic surgery, laparoscopic surgeon make a small 10mm cut in the skin at the belly button. Then a cannula is introduced among the muscle fibres without cutting any of the muscle. Through the cannula, the laparoscope is inserted in to the patient’s body.
Laparoscope is equipped with a little camera and lightweight source that permit it to transmit images through a fibre-optic cord to some television monitor. The television monitor shows a higher resolution magnified image. Watching the monitor, choices are capable of doing the process. Acquire the best inside the patient, further 5mm or 3mm diameter cannulas are put in based upon the process e.g. yet another for a diagnostic laparoscopy, two more for groin hernia repairs and three more for any laparoscopic gallbladder operation.
Instruments are introduced with the cannulas and the operation is conducted exactly as one would did exactly the same procedure at an open operation. All fundamentals of surgery are strictly followed during laparoscopic surgery.
What are the advantages of laparoscopic surgery?
- There is no cut in the muscle because the holes are made in between your fibres.
- The pain is minimal like one would have following a skin cut.
- Less possibility of hospital acquired infections.
- Fewer post-operative chest complications.
- Early return to work.
- No residual weakness.
- Minimal risk of incisional hernias.
- Less disturbing to normal physiology.
- During hernia operations, already weak muscles are not cut, as would have been the case in open surgery.
- Despite small holes, there isn’t any compromise in neuro-scientific vision. Much more of the ‘insides’ is visible than can be done in an open operation. Unlike the ‘mini-incision’ operations, here the entire tummy could be visualised ensuring no abnormal anatomy or pathology is missed.
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FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
Patient gets discharged after surgery within a day and within a week of surgery, the patient should be able to resume routine activities. After 1 week following the laparoscopic surgery, the patient will need to revisit the surgeon.
Surgeons usually perform laparoscopy under general anaesthesia.
When non-invasive procedures such as ultrasound, CT scan, MRI scan, and other tests fail to diagnose the problem, surgeons can perform a laparoscopy to identify and diagnose numerous gastrointestinal problems. The information gained from laparoscopy is sufficient to make a diagnosis. A laparoscope can also obtain tissue specimens or a biopsy from a specific abdominal organ, such as the stomach, liver, gallbladder, appendix, pancreas, etc.
Laparoscopic surgery is equally as safe as open surgery. Dr. Christopher SK, a dedicated laparoscopic surgeon in Tirunelveli, will examine the abdomen before surgery to determine whether laparoscopic surgery is safe to undertake. If he discovers a lot of inflammation or other circumstances that make it difficult to see the organs clearly, he may need to make a broader incision to operate safely.